Muscle for life

How the Afterburn Effect Actually Works (And Why It’s Overrated)

How the Afterburn Effect Actually Works (And Why It’s Overrated)

The afterburn effect isn’t nearly as powerful as “they” want you to believe…but you can benefit from it. Here’s how.


Few gimmicks have helped sell more fitness tripe than the “afterburn effect.”

Marketers stumbled upon it decades ago and ever since have been using it to hawk books, magazines, supplements, workout programs, and the like.

It catches people’s attention because it sounds cool and just about anything that claims to give you a fat loss edge is alluring.

It even appears to have science on its side, and let’s face it–when we’re talking fat loss, even the most tenuous science-based arguments can pass muster. We just really want to believe.

Is the afterburn effect real, though? And if it is, can it actually help you lose fat faster?

Let’s find out.

What is the Afterburn Effect?

afterburn effect

The afterburn effect is simply additional energy expenditure that occurs after exercise.

The technical term is “excess post-exercise oxygen consumption” or EPOC, which clues you in as to what’s going on.

You see, after you work out, your body must perform a variety of tasks to recover and return to a resting state, including…

  • Replenishment of oxygen stores
  • Replenishment of ATP stores
  • Replenishment of creatine stores
  • Removal of lactic acid
  • Reparation of muscle
  • And more.

These processes require oxygen, so oxygen consumption rises after exercise, and cost energy, so additional calories are burned above the resting rate.

Thus, the afterburn effect.

How much additional energy expenditure are we talking about though? Enough to significantly affect weight loss?

How Large is the Afterburn Effect?

afterburn effect exercises

Research shows that the afterburn effect climaxes in the first hour following exercise and declines thereafter and can last anywhere from 10 to 72 hours.

Studies also show that the magnitude and duration of EPOC depends mainly on several factors:

  • Type of exercise (cardio or weightlifting)
  • Workout intensity
  • Workout duration
  • Gender
  • Training status

Let’s take a look at the afterburn effect of cardio and weightlifting separately.

The Afterburn Effect of Cardio

afterburn effect workouts

Intensity and duration are the primary factors that determine the EPOC of cardio.

As exercise intensity and duration increase, so does the magnitude and duration of the afterburn effect.

Case in point: a study conducted by scientists at the National Institute of Occupational Health (Norway) had subjects bicycle at intensities of 29%, 50%, and 75% of VO2 max for 80 minutes.

Researchers found that the greatest EPOC was seen in the 75% group, lasting for about 10.5 hours and resulting in an additional 150 calories burned.

150 calories is 150 calories but the issue here is obvious: 80 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise is a lot.

If your goal is to preserve maximal muscle and strength, you simply can’t do multiple 80-minute cardio workouts every week. In fact, you want to keep your cardio to a minimum.

The obvious way to do this is high-intensity interval training, which I highly recommend for speeding up fat loss without sacrificing muscle and strength.

Many weight loss “gurus” also claim that HIIT workouts result in large amounts of post-workout energy expenditure but research shows this just isn’t true.

Yes, the EPOC of HIIT workouts is higher than traditional steady-state workouts, but it’s too small to get excited about.

A good demonstration of this can be found in a study conducted by researchers at Flinders University.

Subjects were assigned to one of two groups and did 30 minutes of running. One group ran continuously at 70% VO2 max and the other did sprint intervals, pushing themselves to 105% of VO2 max for 1 minute followed by 2 minutes of rest.

The EPOC of the interval group was about 69 calories and the continuous group about half that amount. 69 calories of additional energy expediture…hip hip hooray.

That said, one of the many benefits of HIIT is that you can several hours per week without overtraining or negatively impacting your body composition.

This means that the cumulative EPOC effects of 3 to 5 HIIT workouts per week can add up to anywhere from an additional ~200 to 400 calories burned.

Again, this isn’t all that significant but does count for something when you’re lean and looking to get really lean. Especially when you combine it with other simple strategies to maximize fat loss.

Unfortunately, the afterburn effect of cardio just isn’t large enough to warrant much attention.

It’s only significant in the cases of long (60+ minute) workouts of moderate intensity (60 to 80% of VO2 max), and even then it’s rather small compared the total calories burned during the workouts themselves.

The point here is that the energy burned during cardio workouts is the primary driver of fat loss. EPOC is just a dab of icing on the cake.

Use this workout and flexible dieting program to lose up to 10 pounds of fat and build muscle in just 30 days…without starving yourself or living in the gym.

The Afterburn Effect of Weightlifting











afterburn effect myth

Like cardio, the EPOC of weightlifting varies depending on the types of workouts and the training status of the subjects.

Research shows weightlifting’s afterburn effect is fairly long (15 to 38 hours) and the “metabolic boost” is, on average, about 9 to 11%.

(Thus, if someone’s basal metabolic rate is 2,000 calories, they might burn an additional 200 calories over the course of the post-workout recovery period.)

This sounds promising but the problem with these findings is the workout programs demonstrating these effects are terribly impractical (one study had subjects do 60 sets and another prescribed 30).

Sitting in the gym hammering away for 2 to 3 hours just to burn a couple hundred additional calories during recovery doesn’t sound like much of a “weight loss hack” to me.

That said, there is evidence that moderate bouts of intense (heavy) weightlifting may yield a post-workout calorie expenditure worth mentioning

A study published by scientists from Democritus University of Thrace found that 60 minutes of weightlifting with 85% of 1RM increased their subjects’ metabolic rates over the following three days, burning hundreds more calories than men that trained with lighter weights (45 to 65% of 1RM).

The subjects were overweight men aged 65 to 82 but similar effects have been replicated in other studies.

The EPOC of moderate bouts of heavy weightlifting is significantly higher than cardio, but it’s still too small to be given the center stage in your fat loss journey. EPOC happens and helps, but it’s the energy burned during your weightlifting workouts (and the muscle you build as a result) that is going to keep the pounds coming off.

That said, like HIIT, you can easily perform 3 to 5 heavy weightlifting workouts per week while in a calorie deficit and the “afterburned calories” can add up to something meaningful.

Combine the two and the EPOC most definitely adds up. 3 to 5 HIIT and heavy weightlifting workouts each week can easily burn an additional 1,000 to 1,500 calories thanks to EPOC.

Add in a few effective fat loss supplements and you can increase that number by another 1,000 calories, and now you’re looking at a significant increase in weekly fat loss (approximately 1/2 to 2/3 of a pound of additional fat loss per week).

The Bottom Line on the Afterburn Effect

afterburn exercises

The afterburn effect is a great marketing angle but the reality is the calories burned during exercise are the most important factor in fat loss.

Furthermore, the types of workouts you would need to do to burn a large amount of calories through EPOC are just unfeasible. And even then at least 80% of the total calories burned would be from the training itself.

That said, you can rack up a fair amount of additional calories burned through EPOC by following a program that has you perform several relatively short high-intensity interval training and heavy weightlifting workouts.

This type of workout program also happens to be ideal for maximizing fat loss and minimizing muscle and strength loss, so it’s a win win.

What do you think about the afterburn effect? Have anything else to share? Let me know in the comments below!

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I'm Mike and I'm the creator of Muscle for Life and Legion Athletics, and I believe that EVERYONE can achieve the body of their dreams.

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  • Alex Wunder

    Hi Mike,

    My last average for my weight over the past 10 days was 147.055.

    I was 151.5 a little over two weeks ago.

    The calipers you recommend don’t give me a body fat percentage that I find reliable.

    I suppose that the pounds I loss came primarily from fat because my muscles have stayed and the visible fat on my body is decreasing. As a result, I would like to know how I should calculate my body fat and TDEE based on that information.

    What I currently am doing was figuring out my TDEE (including activity) at 7.5 % bf, 8% bf and 8.5 % bf and averaging the 3 TDEE’s to get my daily calorie intake.

    My reasoning: If i had 15.15 lbs of fat at 151.5 (being 10% bf)

    and i lost 4.1 lbs of fat then… that would give me 11.05 lbs/ 147.05 which = 7.5 % bf..

    The only thing is I don’t know how accurate this is because the weight lost could have come from muscle too. I just ordered my measuring tape off amazon and should be getting it soon. Until then I have no idea what my measurements were and are.

    Do you think what I am doing is accurate?

    • Alex Wunder

      May have been 3 weeks by now actually and I have been dieting the way you recommend. (doing it by the books)

    • Hey man!

      Post a pic and I’ll let you know what I think.

      • Alex Wunder

        Here’s that pic. Took it first thing in the morning this time. I personally feel like when I weigh myself in the afternoon as opposed to the morning it throws off the scale by a pound or two so I’m going to start factoring that in.

        • Looking great brother. I would guess 8 to 9%. Small changes in BF% doesn’t change TDEE calculations much anyway.

          The bottom line is you’d have to get DEXA scanned at this point to know with absolute certainty.

          • Alex Wunder

            Thanks Mike! Yeah the difference in calculations are only like 10-20 calories max. (it’s sad but i’ve done them)

            Btw you were definitely right about the obliques showing more at a lower bf. Still working on TVA and serrates. They are works in progress.

            Lastly. I looked up DEXA scans in my area I’m not sure their are any. Might just have to settle for what I see in the mirror. It’s honestly good enough.

          • YW. Lol.

            Glad to hear on the obliques!

            Understood on the DEXA. BOD PODs are pretty good too if you one of those in your area.

  • Alex Wunder

    Also, I now workout monday-friday for one hour a day and do 20-22 minute hitt sessions (including warmup/cooldown). Would you say that puts my activity multiplier at 1.35 of 4-6 hours a week?

    • Yeah that sounds like 1.35 to me. I wouldn’t go higher than 1.4.

  • Alex Wunder

    One more question.. I just started doing hiit on the bike and I warmed up for 3 minutes and then did 15 minutes of 30 sec sprint and 30 second rest.. this put me at 18 minutes.. then I rested for 2 minutes to finish. Should I include the warmup and cooldown in the 20 minutes of calculated hiit? because I know you say any longer than 20-25 minutes could cause muscle breakdown.

    How do you do your hiit?

    • Kelsey

      Personally, I don’t include my warm-up and cool-down as part of my 20 minutes. And I actually started doing 25, so my total time ends up being close to 30-35 minutes of running after hitting weights. I also take one day and hit the track and do some distance running there too.

      I know it’s a lot of cardio, but I am also training to be a police officer and a big part of getting hired on is passing two timed running tests, so when I run I am also timing myself, trying to hit certain distances in a certain amount of time, trying to get faster, etc. I am still interested to see what Mike says in response to your question.

      • Alex Wunder

        Yeah, I mean if I can get away with more cardio without overtraining or causing muscle breakdown I will push myself to do it. I just don’t want to do anything that ends up being counter productive to my goals.

    • Yeah I count all. Just a few minutes so it’s okay. 😉

  • Venky

    Hi Mike,

    Great article. You mentioned that “3 to 5 HIIT and heavy weightlifting workouts each week can easily burn an additional 1,000 to 1,500 calories thanks to EPOC” Does this mean if one does this (without any more increase in calorie intake) does the additional calories above going to be added up to the Net Calorie Deficit number ?



  • Derek

    Thank you for putting this in check Mike. I read about this years ago in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease and they stated similar findings and how EPOC has been a bit “over-stated” in the fitness industry.



  • Chase

    Here is the part I don’t understand… The study you referenced concerning the steady state cardio vs HIIT had the equivalent total distance travelled, however the time was different.
    Say it took someone doing steady state cardio 30 minutes to run 3.5 miles (7 mph), thats 8:34 per mile (which is pretty doable, and about 70% MHR for the average gym rat). It would take someone sprinting at 10.5 mph (5:42 per mile) about an hour to cover 3.5 miles if they took the 2 minutes of “rest” described in the study.
    The steady state cardio would burn 69 calories less in 3.5 miles of running/sprinting. Why wouldn’t the steady state runner simply run for another half a mile or so to burn that additional 69 calories? (The average 180lb male burns 135 calories per mile). They would be done in less than 35 minutes and avoid overtaxing their CNS, allowing them to push harder in the weight room.

    • Sure you can run more but there are other benefits to HIIT as well, which are summarized nicely here:


      • Casey Collier

        That’s very interesting. So there are benefits other than the calorie burn and the EPOC that even some scientists don’t understand fully? I’m trying to implement HIIT into my workouts without overdoing weekly volume…

        • Exactly. Likely related to hormonal responses to exercise.

          I do no more than 1.5 to 2 hours of HIIT per week when cutting. That plus 4 to 5 hours of weightlifting is plenty.

          • Casey Collier

            Thanks Mike. I’ll work that in. What are your thoughts on performing high intensity cardio bursts in between sets while lifting? Such as rope jumping or something like that.

          • YW.

            I’m not a fan. You want to be as strong as you can for your lifting to progressively overload.

            Ideally, the weight lifting and cardio are done completely separate. (one in the AM and one in the PM).

          • Casey Collier

            Yeah that’s what I try to do. If I have to do cardio in the same session as weights should I just do it after I’m finished lifting? Will this inhibit any progress? Even if I am trying to add muscle?

          • Yeah, if they HAVE to be done together, do the lifting first and then cardio. That shouldn’t effect much.

          • Casey Collier

            Alright good to know thank you so much for your patience and for the help!

          • Happy to do it!

    • And hence you’ve discovered the reality behind the bulllshit pushed by the meathead anti cardio crowd. Running is bad. It takes too long. It burns muscle. Your body just adapts. 135 cals per 8.5 minute mile. Never ever will you burn that much in 8 minutes in the gym. Ever. The solution? Fuck all that shit. Be healthy, eat well and pursue whatever activity or exercise that floats your boat. It will be Bennificial. And if you enjoy it you’ll stick with it. Pure lifters will never burn what endurance athletes that run 70 plus likes a week burn. But who cares? Follow your passion whatever that is. What about HITT? If you think 20 minutes of HITT = 90 minutes of running then you’re beyond help.

      • Tony Davila

        HITT is more efficient than steady state cardio to get fit and burn fat. Scientifically proven (look for Izumi Tabata’s studies), as simple as that, buuuut… of course, if you enjoy running long distances and that’s what keeps you motivated, there’s nothing wrong with that. Each person has different goals. You gotta stick with the activities that you like if you want to make it a lifestyle. If you want to enjoy physical recreation, you can do many things, whatever you like, walk, run, dance, swim, for many hours, etc.. On the other hand, EXERCISE, is a series of precise, measured movements that will produce a target change (Burn fat, build muscle, run faster, be stronger, or all of that). And I remark “measured” because more is not necessarily better. In fact, doing more can be detrimental in some cases. But well, science is boring or overwhelming for some people and we can’t let that stop us from doing the physical activities we enjoy. Best regards!

        • Lyle McDonald has some excellent material about the utter horseshit that less is more ie HITT vs distance – which isn’t steady state anyway – and distance vs lifting for calorie burn and the real math behind after burn. Facts are facts.

          • Tony Davila

            I didn’t know who Lyle McDonald is. I’ll take my time to review his info. I’m sure he knows what he talks about but I’m pretty sure that other’s opinions are very qualified too. Maybe you should read other stuff too. I prefer to check material of various experts and get to my own conclusions PUTTING IN PRACTICE some of their stuff and seeing the results. I recommend Bill Philips, Tom Venutto and specially “The 4 hour body” of Tim Ferriss. I don’t know who told you that “Running is bad”, I’m pretty sure you should get away from people like that. But you must accept that running for hours is not what everybody likes or needs. Not everybody has the same goals. If you want just to loss weight, you can do it without any exercise at all. If you want to do a whole recomposition of your body, it’s another story, ¿Do I have to live in the gym or run for hours and hours to achieve that? ¡Hell no! We don’t have to train more, we have to train smart. It’s not horseshit. HIIT is time efficient, facts are facts, but that doesn’t mean that “steady state” is evil… no, no, no. Distance runners are great athletes… ¡and they use HIIT in their training too!. You can see in youtube how Cristiano Ronaldo (fittest man alive according Men’s health) trains using HIIT on a football court. ¡Every football match is a HIIT session! and the guy has 4 or 5% of body fat. See the training of Usain Bolt, the fastest man on earth… HIIT. Of course I don’t mean that we should train like they do. Each person has its own goals, but if they, being elite athletes, don’t have to run for hours to be lean, powerful, fast and the best at their sports, ¿what makes you think you should do more just to get fit or have a nice body and health? If you love run for hours and that’s what keeps you motivated, go ahead. If you want to do other things in life too, do HIIT and get the same results. Their just tools like weightlifting is too. Set your goals and use the tools that fit into them. In the end, we gotta do what we like to do to make it a lifestyle. After all, we can’t let “the real math behind afterburn” or the “HITT vs distance” debate prevents us from reaching our fitness goals.

          • Tony Davila

            Thanks Mike . I did read and agree . Since January , I’m following the program “Beyond bigger, leaner and stronger” after a couple of years of following the ” Body for Life” method and also your BLS program spiced with a little things from here and there. I found very interesting the periodization technique that you describe in your book and decided to give it a try. I reduced cardio to a minimum and I feel great. My friends ask me what I’m doing , specially those who have not seen me in a while. My Achilles heel is the food, I love to eat and I do not make a cheat day but a cheat weekend… ha ha ha … but I’m working on it. It’s nice to read you, keep up the good work!

          • Welcome! Cool you’ve been following the program.

            Awesome you’re getting results!

            Yep, diet is KEY. Gotta make sure you keep the cheats under control. Check this out:


            Will do. Talk soon.

        • Then I guess you believe the bowflex commercials then? Just 20 minutes a day 3 days week for a ripped bod! Uh-huh. Less isn’t more.

          • Tony Davila

            Ha ha ha… of course not, man, c’mon… again with the statements… I didn’t say that “Less is more”. When you use HIIT (HIGH INTENSITY intervals training) instead of “steady state”, you are putting more INTENSITY instead of TIME. The things that happen in your body when you do that are very interesting. HIIT is not better nor a secret miracle, is simply a different approach. Get a Heart rate monitor and do some tests with your body to find your High intensity zone. Run, swim, jump, do whatever you want in your high intensity zone and find out if “less is more”. I hope you can last 20 minutes of real HIIT. You can spend 3 hours a day in the track, watching the sunset and hearing the birds sing or the whole collection of the Beatles. Sure you can have fun and it’s better than stay on the couch watching TV. You can spend 1 hour running or swimming, etc. and feel how your heart pumps, your body improves in health and enjoy an album of your favorite artist… or you can spend 20 minutes of High intensity action and see great improvement too. I’m sure that with HIIT you will not hear any other thing that your heart at its full capacity, growing and becoming stronger. It’s your choice. We’re in the 21st century. Training in these days must be SMART. Very important, you can spend hours running and still don’t get a ripped body. For a ripped body, the key is what and how much you eat. Exercise and training are tools that help, among others. You are in a post of Michael Mathews. This guy has excellent info about that. Read it with an open mind and do some tests with yourself. Less is not more, we totally agree on that. You want to spend LESS TIME in the gym? put MORE intensity, much more. You don’t want to sweat that much? put more time and certain intensity. In the end, “more is not better”. Smart training is doing the exact movements needed to see a change in the time those movements take. No more, no less. You’ll be surprised to know that it does not take long for the body to respond to certain stimuli. You need to read “The 4 hour body”. and Bowflex is no that bad but I prefer free weights, 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week.

  • Victoria Hall

    So, this is my first day out. I was out of town, so found some awesome hills to run some sprints on, timing it to hit the hill every three minutes or so. Believe me, I needed the additional time to get on top of my breathing. Anyways, I am not familiar with some of the acronyms, but know that HIIT has always worked for me.
    Just want to clarify, I did my HIIT this morning on an empty stomach, had some protein afterwards. Am I correct in saying that I use my Whey Isolate before and after weight training this afternoon?
    This program is everything I have learned over the years, all rolled into one. Can’t wait to progress back to where I deserve to be!

  • Catherine

    Hi when you say lift heavy 3-5 days a week what would that look like? Would you train muscle groups once or twice a week? What would you gain more from? Body part split or upper/ lower workouts? Or full body routine? I’m a 28 year old women who has been doing weights and cardio for about a year but way too much cardio and never really built much muscle! Also even though I train my legs I think they look skinny fat-I’m always afraid of them getting too bulky but would love my butt to be more firmer – any suggestions would help
    Thanks xx

      • Catherine

        Thanks a lot
        If you liked to train body parts twice over a 7-10 day period how would you recommend changing your 5 day split – would you repeat it after the 5 days? Or just have 1 day off then repeat? Also could you give an example of a 25 min hiit session- I do t always like using the bike as find it bulks up my quads- if I used the treadmill what what the timings and speed etc should you be aiming for ?
        Thanks for your advice and help x

        • I would probably go Push Pull Legs x 2 Rest x 2 and repeat. You have to be careful on programming that though because it can be easy to overtrain.

          I’d do something like a less intense version of PHAT probably.

          Check this out on the HIIT:


          • Catherine

            That’s great thanks do much – I think I’ve been doing hiit a little wrong that’s why legs feel so bulky and horrid sfter- as I always thought you needed to sprint for like 20 seconds really high intensity or high resistance on bike – so will try doing it for longer and on lower resistance/! When you do bike what level resistance do you use? Xx

          • Ah yeah many people make that mistake. You want to go FAST when you’re doing your HIIT not necessarily hard on the resistance.

            I’m on a recumbent bike and I use a resistance setting of 5, which gives me something to pedal against but allows me to go for 60 seconds without frying my legs.

  • Brian Copeland

    Hi, Michael. Thanks again for another good article. I dropped from 230 to 205 pounds by cutting calories and then plateaued. Per your advice I added in some high intensity cardio in the form of Orange Theory twice and week and dropped another 12 pounds in two months (That and I cleaned up my diet just a tad eliminating things like diet soda and adding in some supplements like green tea and amino acids). As you may know, Orange Theory markets the crap out of the afterburn effect. I’m not sure if it has been the afterburn that is making the difference or just burning 900+ calories in an hour during a workout twice a week. Regardless, the high intensity cardio training has sure made a difference to me and I’m currently at 9% body fat for the first time in my adult life! I’ll have to re-read your book now to get some other tips on how to get to 4%.

    • Thanks! Great job on the weight loss.

      Yeah I’m familiar with OT and their marketing. It’s not the afterburn effect as much as the energy your’e burning in the workouts.

      Keep it up man and honestly I don’t think it’s possible to get to 4% naturally without imploding yourself.

  • amber

    Thank you Michael! Love your book “Fit is the new skinny” it really helped me get my diet balanced! After having two kids and thinking I would never see abs again… one month after really getting into lifting my stomach is flat, abs are peeking through, and my stomach looks better that before… well minus the stretch marks! Thanks for sharing your knowledge with us!

    • Welcome! Glad you enjoyed the book.

      Awesome that you’re getting results and abs are coming out–even better than before!

      Keep up the good work and keep me posted!

      • amber

        Will do!

  • estycki

    I find that I’m not hungry right after a workout, but I want to eat EVERYTHING the day after. I wondered if this was some kind of afterburn effect or metabolism boost, as my body is looking to refuel and rebuild.

  • Raticate

    Hi, I am 16 years old teen. My problem is obviously belly fat. My weight is 72-75. I train 3 times in a week. I run at treadmill about 20 min. 5 caloriea walking than 15 running, repeating up to 200. Any tips, I rwally need help.

  • Nick Zografos

    I think HIIT in general is overrrated and over used. The only benefit is time, if you only have 20-25 mins, HIIT is going to burn more calories than steady state, with only a slightly higher EPOC. So when I am short of time, I will do HIIT. I usually end up finishing around 22 mins. I burn around 240 calories. Add another 14% EPOC another 35 calories for a total of 275 calories.

    Now if I do 35 minutes, which is easy when cardio is the only training I do on non lifting days, considering lifting sessions take 50-60 mins, 35 mins is still a short workout. (way too short to burn away your muscles). If I work at a hard intensity not 65% but closer to 80% that whole time, I burn around 330-340 calories. Add another 15 from EPOC. Now I have burnt 350 calories, in 35 minutes. That is an extra 75 per session, if I do 3x a week an extra 225 calories burnt weekly. So yes, HIIT is better for 20 mins or less, but if you can do 30-40, it is not that impressive.

  • Destini Moody

    So the burning question I have is…

    How many calories do you burn after strength training relative to cardio? I know there’s no exact number, but can a range be interpreted from the studies cited above?

    Thanks Mike for busting another fitness myth!

    • It’s pretty comparable, and it depends on intensity, of course (HIIT and heavy lifting = more EPOC than LISS/light lifting).

  • Spencer Montgomery

    I think the points are all fair, as they are factual, and based on experiments.

    The article doesn’t go as far as to address the improvement in general fitness, and ability to train harder and more efficiently after HIT.

    I’m a keen amateur cyclist, and I find that a few weeks of structured HIT improves my climbing ability and stamina immensely, which in turn would enable me to burn more calories in a shorter period of time.

    So there are other ways that HIT improves your ability to train more effieciently, which perhaps haven’t been studied as much as afterburn.

    • These are good point, Spencer! Maybe someone will conduct those studies, eventually. It’s always nice to learn more!

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