The US weight loss market is absolutely massive (worth nearly $61 billion as of 2011), and weight loss pills account for about $1.5 billion of that pie.
When people are spending that kind of money, count on the hucksters and shysters to be operating in force.
The result is, well, what we see in the marketplace: an absolute glut of weight loss products and dietary routines, all advertised as better than the next.
This can make weight loss a very confusing, frustrating, and expensive endeavor.
Well, the first thing you should know is that NO pill will cause you to magically lose weight. You have to regulate your caloric intake to lose weight (you have to feed your body less energy than it burns every day).
That said, in this article, I’m going to go over the ingredients in variety of popular “weight loss pills” and show you which can speed up weight loss when combined with a proper diet, which don’t, and which scientists are unsure of.
Before you buy that next bottle of weight loss pills, check out the ingredients and compare them against this list. You won’t find everything here, but these are the most popular ones at the moment.
Let’s get the bad out of the way first.
The acai berry craze has passed, but it still remains a solid top seller in the world of weight loss supplements.
I’ll keep this short and simple, and just quote the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine:
“There is no definitive scientific evidence based on studies in humans to support the use of acai berry for any health-related purpose.
“No independent studies have been published in peer-reviewed journals that substantiate claims that acai supplements alone promote rapid weight loss. Researchers who investigated the safety profile of an acai-fortified juice in animals observed that there were no body weight changes in rats given the juice compared with controls.”
The Bottom Line
Don’t waste your money on acai berry products if you’re trying to lose weight.
Carnitine is a compound that your body produces from the amino acids lysine and methionine, and it plays a vital role in the generation of cellular energy.
Well, it does have a mechanism that is of interest: it increases fat oxidation in the muscles.
What this means is it appears to increase the rate at which muscle tissue burns fat for fuel instead of glycogen. Theoretically, this might result in additional fat loss while exercising.
Actual research is less than promising, however.
There’s evidence that carnitine can reduce fat mass and increase muscle mass in the elderly, but these effects were not seen when it was tested with overweight pre-menopausal women. Animal research has also failed to demonstrate any weight loss benefits when simply combined with a calorie-restricted diet.
Thus, scientists don’t know yet if carnitine’s metabolic effect are profound enough to actually accelerate weight loss when combined with exercise. Animal research says no, as well as a human trial (which isn’t definitive due to flaws in design, but is worth noting).
The Bottom Line
Unless your body’s ability to oxidize fat is impaired by disease or dysfunction, the research currently available says that carnitine supplementation isn’t likely to help with weight loss.
Raspberry ketones are the primary aroma compound of the red raspberry (it gives the raspberry its smell), and it’s also found in other fruits like the blackberry and cranberry.
How did such a seemingly random compound find its way into weight loss products?
Well, it started with a couple animal studies. One demonstrated that raspberry ketone supplementation prevented weight gain by increasing lipolysis and fat oxidation, and the other backed up this mechanism.
That might be promising if it weren’t for a few little details:
In vitro research is less definitive than in vivo because living organisms are incredibly complex, and sometimes in vitro findings just don’t pan out in vivo.
There is one human trial I know of that is commonly cited as evidence of raspberry ketone’s effectiveness for weight loss.
The problem with this study, however, is the compound was paired with caffeine, capsaicin, garlic, ginger, and citrus aurantium as a source of synephrine. It’s impossible to know if the raspberry ketone did anything or not.
The Bottom Line
There is insufficient evidence to support the use of low oral doses of raspberry ketone for weight loss purposes. Save your money.
Garcinia cambogia is a small fruit often used in Indian and Asian cuisine to impart a sour flavor.
It’s a good natural source of hydroxycitric acid, and has received a lot of media attention recently as a weight loss aid.
These claims are unfounded, however.
Like many fad supplements, garcinia cambogia has some animal research on its side, but human research is contradictory and hard to interpret.
A couple rat studies, such as this one, have demonstrated that garcinia cambogia can reduce weight gain during a period of overfeeding. The mechanism by which it accomplished this is the suppression of fatty acid synthesis in the liver (it reduced the amount of fat the body could make from the excess calories).
The human research bursts that bubble, though.
A meta analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials of garcinia cambogia found the following:
(In case you were wondering, the best result was 1.3 kg more weight lost than placebo group over a 3-month period.)
The Bottom Line
The research currently available says that garcinia cambogia probably won’t help you lose weight, but if it did, the best you could hope for is a very small boost.
Green coffee extract is a supplement derived from green coffee beans. It’s similar to regular coffee beans, but has high amounts of a substance known as chlorogenic acid.
This substance is particularly hot at the moment, thanks to people like Dr. Oz and other mainstream “health gurus.” It may not be everything they claim, though.
A recent meta analysis of the 5 human trials available found that high dosages of chlorogenic acid via green coffee extract (400-800 mg chlorogenic acid per day) may induce fat loss, but researchers noted that the studies demonstrating this had high risks of bias due to funding sources (for-profit companies producing green coffee extract).
The Bottom Line
Green coffee extract may help you lose weight if taken in high enough dosages.
However, until more research is done on it, and particularly unbiased research, green coffee extract’s value as a weight loss supplement is uncertain.
Caffeine, the world’s most popular drug, has more value to us fitness folk than the energy high.
The mechanism by which it aids weight loss is quite simple: it speeds up your body’s metabolic rate by increasing the amount of catecholamines in the blood, which are chemicals that mobilize fat stores to be burned for energy.
The Bottom Line
When combined with a proper diet, caffeine can help you lose weight faster.
Don’t abuse it, however. If consumed too acutely and regularly, tolerance builds (which reduces its effects) and withdrawal symptoms are common.
When I use caffeine for weight loss purposes, I consume no more than 5-6 mg/kg per day, usually in two doses per day before exercise.
This is the fat burner from my line of science-based, naturally sweetened workout supplements, Legion.
Phoenix is the most powerful combination of safe, natural fat burning agents available. It’s also caffeine-free so you can still drink your coffee or pre-workout! If you use PHOENIX with a proper diet and exercise routine, you WILL lose fat faster.
The proof of Phoenix’s superiority is in the formulation. Every serving contains the following…
50 mg of synephrine
This increases both basal metabolic rate and lipolysis, inhibits the activity of certain fat cell receptors that prevent fat mobilization, and increases the thermic effect of food (the “energy cost” of metabolizing food).
600 mg of naringin
This stimulates the production of a hormone called adiponectin, which is involved in the breakdown of fat cells, and that it activates a type of receptor in fat cells that regulates fat mobilization (the PPARα receptor). Through these mechanisms, naringin also works synergistically with synephrine and hesperidin to further accelerate the basal metabolic rate.
100 mg of hesperidin
Like naringin, this also stimulates the production of adiponectin and activates the PPARa receptor. It also improves blood flow and reduces the inflammation of blood vessels.
25 mg of hordenine
This inhibits the activity of an enzyme responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters that induce lipolysis, which allows them to remain in your blood for longer periods and therefore mobilize more fat cells.
400 mg of epigallocatechin gallate
120 mg of salicin
This inhibits the production of molecules that can hinder the effects of synephrine, allowing it reach it’s full metabolic boosting potential
50 mg of forskolin
This increases blood plasma and intracellular levels of a molecule known as cAMP. When cAMP is high, it signifies a lack of ATP (the most basic form of cellular energy in the body) and thus initiates a process to make more ATP by burning through energy reserves (body fat). Research has show that supplementation with forskolin accelerates fat loss and increases testosterone levels.
150 mg of 5-HTP
This increases the feeling of fullness from food and thus helps you control your food intake, it can also reduce your cravings for carbohydrates in particular.
50 mg of L-tyrosine
Longer-term usage of 5-HTP may deplete bodily tyrosine stores, so we included some as a “just in case” safety buffer
If you want to lose fat faster and experience the type of fat-burning power that only clinically effective dosages of scientifically validated ingredients can deliver…and if you want to do it without pumping yourself full of stimulants or other potentially harmful chemicals…then you want to try Phoenix.
Green tea extract is an herbal product derived from green tea leaves. It contains a large amount of a substance known as a “catechin,” which is responsible for many of tea’s health benefits.
One of these benefits relates to weight loss: Research has shown that supplementation with green tea extract reduces total fat mass, accelerates exercise-induced fat loss, and can help reduce abdominal fat, in particular.
The primary mechanism by which it accomplishes this is inhibiting an enzyme that degrades catecholamines, which are chemicals that mobilize fat stores to be burned for energy. This also makes green tea extract work synergystically with caffeine–caffeine increases catecholamine levels, and green tea extract extends the amount of time they spend in the blood.
The epigallocatechin gallate in Phoenix is the catechin most associated with weight loss benefits, so if you’re taking Phoenix, you don’t need to supplement with GTE. If you’re not, however, GTE is a worthwhile addition to your fat loss regimen.
The Bottom Line
Green tea extract is an effective fat loss agent, as well as an effective weight management agent.
Habitual caffeine consumption will reduce its effects, however, and you must take enough (400-600 mg of catechins per day, according to the research available).
Yohimbine is a substance found in the Pausinystalia yohimbe plant.
Research has shown that it blocks a mechanism in fat cells that prevents weight loss, which in turn speeds up fat loss.
There’s a catch, though: you must be in a fasted state for it to work. The insulin spike that occurs after eating a meal completely negates the beneficial effects of yohimbine.
You must take enough as well. Research has shown that .2 mg/kg of body weight is sufficient for fat loss purposes.
The Bottom Line
When used properly (high enough dosage, fasted state, before exercise), yohimbine speeds up fat loss.
However, you should know that research has shown that yohimbine can raise blood pressure. If you have high blood pressure, I don’t recommend you use it.